CENTENNIAL REVIEW (Published on April 26, 2013): The Murder of Little Mary Phagan was written by Mary Phagan-Kean (Born: Friday, June 5, 1953) & published by New Horizon Press (September 15, 1989).
'The Murder of Little Mary Phagan' by Mary Phagan-Kean is an exceptionally insightful semi-autobiographical sketch detailing a fascinating journey exploring one of the most infamous & sensational criminal cases in the annals of early 20th century Southern legal history. What makes this book so intriguing is it provides an intimate view of the Frank-Phagan case from the grandniece of the victim named "Little" Mary Anne Phagan, a child laborer who was murdered one hundred years ago on April 26, 1913 in Atlanta Georgia.
This true crime monograph is widely regarded as the most even-handed book ever written about this Frank-Phagan affair and its contentious aftermath (1913-1986). Most importantly, Phagan-Kean dispels one of the central anti-Christian, anti-Southern and anti-Gentile blood libel conspiracies of the Frank-Phagan Case that has persisted for more than one hundred years as of 2013 -- the theory that Leo Frank was suspected, indicted, convicted and hanged because of wide spread White Southern Christian anti-Semitism.
In the Yawning Darkness on Sunday, April 27, 1913
After old Newt Lee, the newly hired African-American National Pencil Company nightwatchman, punched the timeclock in Leo Frank's second floor business office at 3:01 o'clock a.m., he went down to the stygian basement for the purpose of using the racially segregated Negro toilet. When he completed his business at the cellar's Earthen-Closet and went to check the large sliding wooden and steel framed door of the cellar service ramp, something out of the ordinary appeared faintly in the gloom. As Lee held up his flickering smoky lantern closer, it appeared to be a dead child who had been horribly mauled. Lee stepped back in a state of shock, briskly shuffled his feet to the head of the basement and climbed up two flights to call his superintendent Leo Frank, but after 8 minutes of trying to reach him, no one answered, so Newt called the Atlanta police station.
The grizzly discovery launched an investigation that began precisely at 3:24 o'clock a.m. on Sunday, April 27, 1913, when the graveyard shift call-officer, W.F. Anderson was notified by telephone from a frantic Negro about the horrific discovery. A squadcar filled with officers and Britt Craig (one year veteran Atlanta Constitution Journalist) was immediately dispatched by Anderson moments later. What happened next, was revealed at the Leo Frank trial more than three months later as first responders described in detail what events occurred upon their arrival at 3:40 o'clock a.m. until 7:00 a.m.
At dawn, after the police failed to contact Leo Frank by phone all nightlong, they finally got through to him at 7:00 a.m. and rushed over to his residence & carried him directly to the morgue for identifying the dead body. After Leo Frank claimed to be unsure about the identity of the dead girl, police officers drove him to factory in an effort to have him pinpoint the approximate time of Phagan's arrival via his accounting books.
The timeline is born with "Saturday, April 26, 1913 at 12:03 o'clock p.m."
Inside Leo's business office at 8:00 a.m., he opened his payroll ledger and told the police officers that Mary Phagan had arrived at about 12:03 pm on Saturday, April 26, 1913, asking for her pay and upon receiving it left. Frank went on to tell the police he had not left his business office until 12:45 p.m. on that fateful yesterday.
Monday, April 28, 1913 at 9:00 a.m.
The next day, Monday morning, April 28, 1913, Leo Frank would change the time of Phagan's arrival to his office from 12:03 pm, to between, "12:05pm to 12:10pm, maybe 12:07pm"
(State's Exhibit B, Leo Frank Trial Brief of Evidence, 1913; Atlanta Constitution, August 2, 1913).
Tuesday, April 29th, 1913
Leo Frank was arrested on suspicion of murder, Tuesday, April 29th at 11:35 o'clock a.m., it would be his last day of freedom. Two days after Frank's arrest, Jim Conley the factory roustabout was arrested on Thursday, May 1st, 1913.
Milestone in the Mary Phagan Murder Investigation
Something very interesting happened one week after the murder of Mary Phagan on Saturday, May 3, 1913. The event was an unexpected surprise and major breakthrough that occurred when detectives stumbled upon one of the child laborers who had just tendered her resignation at the National Pencil Company (NPCo), she was fourteen year old Monteen Stover -- who was accompanied by her incensed stepmother -- making what astonishingly turned out to be a second attempt at collecting her pay envelope, because she had failed the first time on Georgia Confederate Memorial Day, when she came to the factory alone at five minutes past noon.
When police detectives thoroughly questioned Monteen Stover, she revealed something rather curious: Stover said, that when she had arrived at the NPCo exactly one week ago and made her first attempt to get her weekly wages, Leo Frank was not in his office like he normally was in the past at the normal payoff time on Saturdays at noon. More chronologically specific, Stover said Leo Frank's office was empty when she waited inside it from, 12:05 p.m. to 12:10 p.m., based on the office's wallclock.
This was earth shattering news to investigators, because on Monday, April 28, Leo Frank in the presence of his elite attorneys (Luther Zeigler Rosser and Herbert Haas) made an unsworn stenographed deposition to a room full of Atlanta police detectives, where Frank precisely stated he was in his office alone with Mary Phagan between 12:05 p.m. and 12:10 p.m. (State's Exhibit B). Even more significant is that Leo Frank told the police on Sunday, April 27, 1913, not only that Mary Phagan had come to his office at 12:03pm, but that he had not left his office until 12:45 p.m.
Sunday, May 4, 1913, The Moment of Truth
Without Leo Frank knowing the police had discovered and questioned 14-year old Monteen Stover, Detectives John R. Black and Pinkerton Detective Harry A. Scott, approached Leo Frank in his jailcell on Sunday, May 4, and asked him to confirm again, if he had been in his office every minute on Saturday, April 26, from noon to 12:45PM, and Leo Frank responded with an affirmative 'Yes'. The officers then took a different angle and asked Leo Frank if he had been in his office every minute on Saturday, April 26, from noon to half passed noon, and Leo Frank responded again with an affirmative 'Yes'. It was then at 8 days after the murder of Mary Phagan, the police had discovered a possible discrepancy in Leo Frank's murder alibi. Leo Frank would maintain stoically up until his trial that he had never left his office, from noon, until he went upstairs to the fourth floor at 12:45pm, to tell two employees he was getting ready to leave the building for dinner (what they called a hot lunch in 1913).
As far as the police were concerned, the murder alibi of Leo Frank had possibly been unintentionally shattered by 14-year old Monteen Stover, but they would have to wait three and a half months to find out how Leo Frank would account for his new murder alibi dispute, because that's how long Leo Frank would maintain that he never left his office, but then something electrifying happened...
Leo Frank Murder Trial, August 18, 1913
At his murder trial, Leo Frank would directly respond to contradiction in his murder alibi caused by Monteen Stover's trial testimony, about answered specifically why his office had been empty at the exact same time he claimed Phagan was with him alone in his window front office. Leo Frank changed his original murder alibi that he maintained for 3.5 months, to explain the REAL reason why his office was empty on Saturday, April 26, 1913, between 12:05pm and 12:10pm, and not only was it deliciously ironic, but in doing so, he ineluctably gave away the solution to who killed Mary Phagan!
Unique Trial Analysis
Mary Phagan Kean offers a uniquely neutral analysis of the month long capital murder trial, which began on July 28, and led to Leo Frank's August 25, 1913, murder conviction, after the jury deliberated for about two hours. The decision rendered by 12 White men, also included a recommendation to the presiding Judge, that a death sentence be meted-out for Leo Max Frank. Both the conviction & sentencing recommendation were affirmed the next day by the presiding Judge, the Honorable Leonard Strickland Roan, on Tuesday morning, August 26, 1913 at 10:30 a.m. Judge Roan sentenced the defendant Leo Frank to death by hanging as prescribed by the law, the execution date was first scheduled for October 10, 1913, but appeals set the execution date back repeatedly for two more years.
Leo Frank's subsequent failed appeals, initiated from August 27, 1913 to April, 1915, and his eventual death sentence commutation by the corrupt Governor John M. Slaton, on June 21, 1915, led to a mob of 1200 angry citizens protesting at the Governor's mansion. The angry crowd was quelled and dispersed by a local armed militia.
The lawfirm of 'Luther Rosser, Morris Brandon, John Slaton and Benjamin Phillips'
Rarely ever mentioned in connection with Leo Frank's commutation is the fact that Governor John M. Slaton was part owner of the lawfirm representing Leo Frank at his trial and appeals. The lawfirm was officially called Rosser, Brandon, 'Slaton' and Phillips (the 'Slaton' was Governor John M. Slaton), and this politically powerful law group officially formed in July, 1913, weeks before Leo Frank's Trial began. Governor Slaton had essentially commuted the death sentence of his own law client, after two years of failed case appeals at every level of the United States legal system. Thus naturally the public became outraged, because of the obvious conflict of interest and Slaton's betrayal to the constitutional oath of executive office.
Many people in the 21st century poignantly ask the question, "Can you imagine what the outcry would be if that exact same conflict of interest happened today?"
Leo Frank was shipped off by train to the Milledgeville State Penitentiary, located some 170 miles away on June 22nd 1915.
The Shanking of Leo Frank
About one month later, Leo Frank was attacked in prison while sleeping and had the left side of his throat slashed at 11:00 pm on Saturday, July 17, 1915. The shanking was conducted by fellow inmate William Creen. Leo Frank barely survived the attack and one month later he was broken out of prison.
The Lynching of Leo Max Frank
On August 16, 1915, Leo Frank was abducted from prison in a well executed military commando style raid, by some of the most prominent citizens in the State of Georgia. Frank was driven for 8 hours North west to the edge of Marietta and lynched at sunrise on August 17, 1913. The site of Leo Frank's lynching was at former Sheriff William Frey's Gin (now 1200 Roswell rd, Marietta, Georgia).
The Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith
From nearly 67 to 71 years after the lynching of Leo Frank, the organized Jewish community applied political pressure and conducted backroom dealing involving the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'rith, prominent individual Jews and politically influential Jewish groups, resulting in a highly political posthumous pardon without criminal exoneration
for Leo Frank officiated on Tuesday, March 11, 1986. Alonzo "Lonnie" Mann had died a year earlier on March 19, 1985.
The Leo Frank case continues to capture the imagination of the public, now more than ever as 100 years has passed since this celebrated criminal case began that eventually evolved into a double murder strangulation.
Brief Biography of Leo Frank (1884 to 1915)
Leo Max Frank, was born in Cuero, Texas, on Thursday, April 17, 1884, to local postmaster, Rudolph Frank, an immigrant of Germany (1869), and Leo's mother Rachel Jacobs Frank, who was a native new yorker from Brooklyn. The Frank family moved 3 months after Leo's birth back to Brooklyn, where Leo was raised and educated in the NYC public school system. After completing college prep work at the Pratt Institute Highschool of Brooklyn (1898 - 1902), Leo Frank matriculated into the Ivy League Cornell University in Ithaca, NY. At Cornell in the Fall of 1902, Leo Frank majored in Mechanical Engineering and became very active in several college groups and social life.
During the summer break of 1905, between his Junior and Senior year at college, Leo Frank went with his wealthy uncle Moses Frank on an overseas sojourn, spending the summer traveling around Europe and visiting with extended family.
In the fall of 1905, Leo Frank began his senior year of college. And after successfully graduating on June 21, 1906, with a bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering, Leo Frank bounced around from one job to another, until he visited his rich uncle Moses in Atlanta, Georgia, mid October of 1907, to meet with a delegation of Jewish Businessmen to discuss a potentially lucrative industrial venture manufacturing pencils.
After visiting Atlanta for two weeks, Leo Frank made the very serious life changing decision, and decided he wanted to make the career move. To fulfill this promise, Leo Frank would again go on another sojourn overseas to Europe, arriving at the port in Cuxhaven, Germany, this time to study with the world renowned Eberhard-Faber in Bavaria.
Leo Frank left NYC on November 7, 1907
, ocean bound for Europe. Once in Germany, Frank began diligently studying the pencil manufacturing process. After his 9 month engineering apprenticeship was completed, Leo Frank returned to NYC, August 1, 1908, on the USS Amerika, and then briefly stopped at his home in Brooklyn to visit his family (Rudolph, Rachel and sister Marian) for a few days.
On August 4, 1913, Leo Frank embarked on a South bound train from Penn Station in Manhattan with his weathered leather luggage and relocated to the capital of Georgia. Frank arrived at Terminal Station in Atlanta on August 6, 1908, and started a new life in the Heart of the South.
On Monday morning, August 10th, 1908, Leo Frank began his first day of work at the National Pencil Company, located at 37 to 41 South Forsyth Street in downtown Atlanta. On September 1, 1908, he was made the factory's General Superintendent.
1910, Leo Frank Marries Lucille Selig
Two years later on November 30, 1910, Leo Frank married into an upper middle class German-Jewish family (Cohen-Selig), an established Southern family whose ancestors founded the first synagogue congregation in Atlanta two generations prior. Leo Frank was a rising star, becoming very actively involved with Jewish philanthropy and Atlanta's upper-crust society life in the South.
Even though Frank was born in Texas, and raised in Brooklyn, he assimilated rather quickly in Georgia and was elected B'nai B'rith President of the Gate City Lodge #174 in Atlanta, September, 1912, by the 500 member Jewish fraternal order.
By 1913, with nearly 5 years of hands-on experience in pencil manufacturing, Leo Frank had reached the pinnacle of his career, running the factory as not only its director, but also as a stake holder through the acquisition of company shares. His high rank and partial ownership enabled him to receive $100 a month as a courtesy while he was imprisoned.
The National Pencil Co. headquarters was where Thirteen year old Mary Phagan had begun working as a child laborer in the early Spring of 1912, or about a little more than a year (13 months) before she was murdered. Mary Phagan worked 150 feet down the hall from Leo Frank's office on the 2nd floor, where she participated in the finishing production stages of the pencil manufacturing process. Mary Phagan worked in the metal department, known colloquially by factory employees as the "metal room", in a section called the tipping department, her workstation was adjacent to the only set of bathrooms on the second floor.
Using a knurling machine, Phagan's job involved inserting rubber erasers into the paperthin brass metal tubes that were partially attached around the ends of pencil stock.
The ONLY Bathroom on the Second Floor was Located Inside the Metalroom
One of the most important details rarely mentioned about the "metal room", where Mary Phagan worked, was that the only bathrooms on the second floor were located there - which became a critical detail to the solution of her murder. Moreover, Mary Phagan's work station was 4 feet away to the bathroom door and Leo Frank would pass immediately by her everyday when he needed to use the toilet. Which was likely quite often, given that Leo Frank was known for drinking copious amounts of black coffee every day.
Forensic Evidence Discovered, Monday, April 28, 1913
It was the metal room, where an unusual 5 inch wide blood stain crowned with spatter droplets, was found on the floor adjacent to the bathroom entryway, and hair soaked with blood that had dried, was found tangled around the solid iron handle of a lathe in the same room.
These forensic discoveries in the metal room were initially made Monday morning, at 6:35 AM, on April 28, 1913, when an early bird employee named Robert P. Barret, arrived at work to start the fresh work week after the weekend festivities. As Barret's hand reached for the handle of his lathe, his fingers became entangled with hair that was not previously there, when he left his work station on Friday evening, April 25, at 6:00 o'clock PM.
Word of Mary Phagan's death had already reached all of Atlanta, when a newspaper "Extra", published by the Atlanta Constitution at the behest of Britt Craig, was released on Sunday, April 27, 1913, just hours after the normal Sunday morning edition already appeared.
Once the word got out about the discovery of hair and blood forensic evidence in the metal room, it traveled like wildfire around the factory, employees erupted into emotional hysterics, flocked to the metal room, gawking at these unusual blood stains on the floor, and tangled tress of 6 to 8 hairs scrambled around, and suspended from, the handle of the bench lathe. A number of employees immediately recognized the hair as distinctly being Mary Phagan's, and testified to that effect at the Leo Frank trial.
A white powdery substance known as haskolene -- used as a machine lubricant -- was found suspiciously smeared and rubbed into the fresh blood stains on the metal room floor. What was so significant about the location of the blood stains is that they were conspicuously in front of the girls dressing room and next to the bathroom door, adjacent to where Phagan's workstation was located. The powder smearing appeared to be an attempt to cover up the evidence, but the blood bled through the white powder, turning the dark red stains into variations of white, pink and red. The blood stain also had a star burst spatter pattern behind it, indicating how Phagan's head came into contact with the floor.
Botched Crime Scene Clean-up Job
The poorly conducted "clean-up job", gave the appearance to be a failed attempt at obscuring the blood stains, near where the murder victim, it was later revealed, was first seen by Jim Conley.
Little Mary Phagan's Life (1899 - 1913):
The 55 hour work week Mary Phagan performed at the pencil factory for about 7.5 cents an hour (actually 7 and 4/11 cents an hour), was her small way of helping support her five siblings, and widowed mother Frances (who remarried a cotton mill worker named John William Coleman in 1912). Mary Phagan's step father knew Mary and her family quite well, for about 4 years, before Marrying into the Phagan family. Mr. Coleman identified the hair found on the lathe machine as belonging to Mary Phagan, as did several other employees who worked in the metal room (See: Georgia Supreme Court Records, 1914).
Temporarily Layoff of little Mary Anne Phagan (b. Thursday, June 1, 1899)
During the week before Phagan's murder, a shortage of brass sheet metal at the factory had led to a reduction in her work hours and she was temporarily laid off by Leo Frank on Monday, April 21, 1913, until the supplies could be replenished. Phagan's wages for the shortened work week came to just $1.20, for the 16 hours she had worked the previous Friday, April 18, (10 hours), and Saturday, April 19, (6 hours) prior to her being laid off on Monday, April 21, and then murdered on Saturday, April 26, 1913, Confederate Memorial Day, a state legal holiday.
The First 48 Hours of the Mary Phagan Murder Investigation
George W. Epps made statements on Monday afternoon on April 28, 1913, providing troubling information to Atlanta police, stating that Mary had told him in confidence that Leo Frank scared her, and he often made lascivious sexual innuendos and inappropriate insinuations toward her. Epps said Leo Frank was "after her" in local parlance, that Frank would stare at her strongly, wink and then smile. Phagan allegedly suggested to Epps she was growing ever more scared of her superintendent.
According to Epps, Mary told him specifically that Leo Frank would sometimes run up in front of her, thus ostensibly blocking her way when she was trying to leave work, and during the work day he would pester her, get a little bit too close for comfort, touch her shoulders & stare at her lecherously and then smile.
According to the unabridged Leo Frank Georgia Supreme Court Case file, George Epps, after the Leo Frank murder trial concluded, got kidnapped & ensnared in a witness tampering scandal by Leo Frank's legal defense team (Georgia Supreme Court Records, 1913, 1914).
Epps was lured to Alabama with the promise of a job and then coerced into signing a false affidavit under duress. After George Epps was freed by his kidnappers, he later signed a true affidavit, describing the intimate details, moment by moment, of his being abducted and taken all the way to Alabama. The true affidavit described in details the dishonest trickery that unraveled when Epps was forced to sign a pre-written affidavit that was filled with lies and recantations.
In The First 24 Hours of the Mary Phagan Murder, Sunday, April 27, 1913
When the police arrived on the scene in the basement of the National Pencil Company at 3:45 p.m., they found Mary Phagan's mangled body on the remnants of a saw dust mound diagonal to the furnace, she had been strangled with a cord and what looked like a frilly strip or part of her petticoat wrapped around her neck and soaked with blood.
When Atlanta Police scoured the basement there was evidence Phagan had been dragged by her arms face down from the basement's elevator entry, 140 feet, before she was dumped near the cellar's incinerator. Phagan's face was so scratched up, punctured, and covered with filth, that at first the police were unsure of her race. They had to roll down a stocking from her knee to see for sure if she was White or not. However, Newt Lee remarked that he knew she was white because of the texture of her hair.
The autopsy would reveal Phagan had been hit on the face around the temple and right eyesocket with a left fist (Leo Frank was left handed), there was also a major gash on the back of her head.
The knitted bloomers of Mary Phagan were torn open across the vagina to the seam of the right leg, she had the appearance of having been violently raped, with blood and discharge present on her still attached underwear. Phagan's face was beaten black-and-blue, and sunk deep into her neck was the 1/8th inch thick, 7 foot jute cord, that she had been strangled to death with. One of the doctors who performed an autopsy, testified under oath, to several instances of sexual violence, and internal vaginal damage, torn flesh and inflammation, suggesting some kind of rape either penile or by fingers occurred before she was garroted.
Leo M. Frank, Factory Superintendent
When the detectives arrived at Leo Frank's in-laws home, the door was answered by Mrs. Lucille Selig Frank, the wife of Leo Frank. The police asked if they could speak with Mr. Frank and Lucy welcomed them into their home. Like typical seasoned detectives, without telling Leo Frank why they were there and what it was all about, they closely observed Frank. Suspicion initially fell on Leo Frank at first sight, because he appeared to be extremely nervous, trembling, rubbing his hands, and ghastly pale. Police intimated Leo Frank appeared to be badly hung over, while he was bumbling, and jim-jamming in an agitated state. When Leo Frank asked for a cup of coffee, one of the police officers jocosely suggested whiskey. Leo Frank then began asking questions faster than the police could answer in time, his voice sounded hoarse. Leo Frank fumbled and struggled with minor tasks like fixing his collar before leaving with the police. Moreover, Leo kept saying he hadn't had breakfast and kept asking for a cup of coffee, even after the cops joked about whiskey, as if he was trying to delay the the process of being taken to his industrial plant, where he was manager.
The police asked Leo Frank if he knew Mary Phagan, and Leo Frank denied knowing any Mary Phagan, saying he would need to check his accounting books to be sure. Frank then made some passing remark about not knowing the girls who worked for him.
The significance of Leo Frank claiming to not know Mary Phagan become an important circumstance further into the investigation, because it was later determined by factory records, she had worked for him more than a year on the same floor as his office. By measurement, Phagan's workstation was literally only 3 to 4 feet away from the only bathroom existing on the entire second floor, the same bathroom Leo Frank visited daily during his normal 10 hour work days, as Leo Frank drank several cups of black coffee on a daily basis. Other employees testified Frank knew Mary Phagan quite well and on a first name basis, others suggested they saw Leo behave inappropriately toward Phagan.
Another incriminating fact against Leo Frank's claims of not knowing Mary Phagan, was the payroll ledgers revealed that she had collected more than 50 pay envelopes from Leo during her year of employment and during that time she logged an impressive 2,750+ hours of work on the punch-clock at the factory from specifically: the Spring 1912, to Monday, April 21, 1913 (when she was temporarily laid off by Leo Frank, because of a shortage in metal).
Frame the Nightwatchman ("night witch") Newt Lee
On Sunday morning at 8:26 a.m., April 27, 1913, in the presence of the Atlanta police, Leo Frank pulled out Newt Lee's time card, eye balled it from the top downward and said it was punched correctly every half hour from the time between 6:00pm on April 26, 1913 to 3:00 am on Sunday, April 27, 1913. However, on Monday, April 28, 1913, Leo Frank changed his story and told the Atlanta Police that Newt Lee did not punch his time card at 4 disparate intervals, creating 4 hours of unaccounted for time. It put even greater suspicion on Newt Lee, because the old Negro lived less than half an hour, and the intervals suggested he had more than enough time to go home and return.
Intimations to Search Newt Lee's Home
After making his Monday morning, April 28, 1913, deposition to Atlanta Police that became known as State's Exhibit B, Leo Frank told the police to check his body for scratches and visit his home to look at his laundry. Leo Frank removed his shirt and the police found no visible scratchmarks on his body, and then accompanying the police to the Selig residence, Minola brought the dirty laundry basket and the clothes within it, that indicated no blood stains. Given Leo Frank's intimations about Newt Lee's timecard, the natural thing for the Atlanta police to do next was search Newt Lee's shack.
Tuesday, April 29, 1913
Tuesday morning, April 29, 1913, the police entered Newt Lee's shack without a warrant (violating his constitutional rights) using a skeleton key, outside at the bottom of a garbage burn barrel, they found a suspicious looking bloody shirt. The shirt had blood stains high up on the armpits in the front, back, and inside, in such a manner the police immediately thought it was forged and planted there intentionally. What also made detectives think the shirt might have been fabricated is because the shirt, aside from the oddly placed blood stains, appeared clean and did not have the distinctive "Negro odor" on it as they recalled when they each took turns sniffing it on Tuesday morning, April 29, 1913.
Newt Lee's Blood Soaked Shirt
Three contrived elements perplexed Atlanta Police about Newt Lee's shirt, the fact it was clean, but covered with oddly placed blood smears, and had no funky "Negro smell". These factors taken together gave the suggestion the shirt was meant to incriminate Newt Lee, but why? When the police questioned Newt Lee about the shirt, he said someone gave it to him 2 years ago and he hadn't worn it since.
At that moment, the police began thinking, perhaps someone was trying to implicate Newt Lee the nightwatch, because the "death notes" were written with his job title misspelled as "night witch" (factory employees called the nightwatchman colloquially night watch) written on them - the time card contradiction seemed odd because of 4 missed punches and then the oddball planted shirt, all together were circumstances that began directing strong suspicion on Leo Frank, atleast in the minds of the Atlanta Police and detectives investigating the crime.
Leo Frank's last full day of freedom was Monday, April 28, 1913, because on Tuesday April 29, 1913, at 11:30PM Leo Frank was arrested and would remain incarcerated until his lynching two years later at 1200 Roswell Rd in Marietta.
The Negro Janitor James "Jim" Conley
After arresting the factory sweeper Jim Conley on Thursday, May 1, 1913, and questioning him, it took 2.5 weeks of interrogation to get from him the revelation that he was indeed present at the factory on Confederate Memorial Day.
The Atlanta police "swetted" Jim Conley using the 3rd degree method (good cop / bad cop) and after weeks of initial failure and 3 half-truth affidavits, Atlanta's finest finally got Conley to admit he was an accessory after the fact to the crime. More importantly, the police finally got the details out of Conley about how the body was discovered in front of the metal department's bathroom and transported to the basement. They also were able to get an eye witness account of what Leo Frank was plotting on the afternoon of April 26, 1913.
What Happened According to Jim Conley
Jim Conley admitted he was asked by Leo Frank to move the dead body of Mary Phagan to the basement and "ghost write" dictated "death notes" as if they were written by Mary Phagan, while she was in the middle of being raped. It was necessary they be written in Negro hand writing, to draw suspicion to another Negro. The plot was Ivy League brilliant, because it put two Negroes between Leo Frank and Mary Phagan.
The Oddity of the Mary Phagan Murder Notes
The murder notes were a very contrived attempt to make it appear as if an ignorant semi-literate Negro was trying to charade the notion that Mary Phagan had written the "death notes" after she went to the bathroom in the metal room, was pushed down a hole and then sexually assaulted by Newt Lee in the basement. The "death notes" where unmistakably clear in their attempt to pin the crime and point suspicion on the "long tall slim Negro" night watchman Newt Lee ("night witch"), because the notes physically described Lee exactly, including his job title colloquially 'Night Watch' ebonicized as 'Night Witch'.
Looking back from the 21st century to 1913, the "death notes" cause many people to ask themselves, when or ever in history of the cosmos has a Blackman committed battery, rape, robbery, strangulation and mutilation of a White girl, and then stuck around to write some pseudo-literature as if they were being written by the victim herself in the middle of the rape and addressing the notes to Phagan's mother, describing what happened from the perspective of the victim.
"I write while he plays"... but the notes were unbelievable from the start, because Police thought never in history has someone written notes while they were in the midst of being raped.
The Trial of Leo M. Frank (July 28, 1913, to August 26, 1913)
Hired by the National Pencil Company, Harry Scott contradicted Leo Frank about the answer he had given to Mary Phagan, after she asked the question about her work. There was some conflicting testimony about what Leo Frank said concerning a question Mary Phagan asked him (Mr. Leo Frank) at 12:02 pm or 12:03 PM on April 26, 1913. On Monday, April 28, 1913, Pinkerton Detective Harry Scott was told by Leo Frank that Mary Phagan asked him "Has the metal come in?". Scott told the jury, Leo Frank said to him that he told Phagan: "I Don't Know" -- it created three dimensional time and space of Leo and Mary walking together toward the metal room for the purpose of "finding out", as the brass was normally kept in the metal-room closet.
The Leo Frank trial would make history, because it would be the first time in the South, the testimony of two Negroes (James "Jim Connolly" Conley & Newton "Newt" Lee) would provide evidence in part, leading to the conviction and death sentence of a Whiteman by an all White jury, in the White racially consciousness, Separatist and segregated Old South (a place where Jews were respected, highly regarded and treated as equals to Whites).
The REAL Star Witness Emerges: Monteen Stover
However, the real star witness at the Leo Frank Trial it turns out was not only Jim Conley, but a 14-Year-old & 5'2" tall White girl named Monteen Stover.
Star Witness Monteen Stover and the (THIRD) Leo Frank Admission Amounting to a Murder Confession
Monteen Stover who liked Leo Frank and defended his character at the trial, had inadvertently put Leo Frank's murder alibi into dispute.
Leo Frank swore to his lawyers, the Coroner, police, and detectives, for 3.5 months, that he had never left his office on April 26, 1913, from twelve noon to 12:45pm, but Monteen Stover had arrived at the factory to collect her pay envelope just minutes after Phagan arrived, but she did not bump into Mary Phagan walking down the stairs and Leo Frank was not in his office, nor was Leo Frank aware that Monteen Stover had arrived and waited for him inside his second floor office for five minutes between 12:05 pm to 12:10 pm.
The jury naturally would ask themselves, how come Monteen Stover neither coming or going from the factory didn't bump into Mary Phagan between 12:04pm and 12:11pm, as it took about 1 minute (46 seconds) to reach Leo Frank's second floor office from the front door of the factory lobby. Leo Frank would change his alibi-story about never leaving his office and respond to the testimony of Monteen Stover stating, he might have "unconsciously" gone to the only bathroom in the metalroom during that exact time!
Leo Frank Gave the Solution to the Mary Phagan Murder Mystery on Monday Afternoon, August 18, 1913 at 2:46 pm
Now gentlemen [of the Jury], to the best of my recollection from the time the whistle blew for twelve o’clock [noon on Saturday, April 26, 1913] until after a quarter to one [12:46 p.m.] when I went up stairs and spoke to Arthur White and Harry Denham [at the rear of the fourth floor], to the best of my recollection, I did not stir out of the inner office [at the front of the second floor]; but it is possible that in order to answer a call of nature or to urinate I may have gone to the toilet [in the metal room at the rear of the second floor]. Those are things that a man does unconsciously and cannot tell how many times nor when he does it (Leo Frank Trial Statement, August 18, Brief of Evidence, 1913).
Crescendo of the Leo Frank Murder Trial: State's Exhibit A and Defendant's Exhibit 61
Leo Frank ineluctably entrapped himself beyond escape, because the only bathroom on the second floor was located within the metal room, it was the metal room where the murder forensic evidence was found (bloody hair and bloodstains) and the prosecution had successfully built a month long case that Leo Frank had murdered Mary Phagan on April 26, 1913 in the metal room between 12:05pm and 12:10pm.
To make matters even worse, Leo Frank had made a statement, known as State's Exhibit B stenographed by G. C. Febuary on Monday morning, April 28, 1913, where Frank said Mary Phagan had arrived into his office alone between 12:05PM and 12:10PM on April 26, 1913, but Frank's office was empty according to Monteen Stover during that time, when she came for her pay, and then it happened! Leo replied to this incongruity, by saying he might "unconsciously" have been inside the metal room's bathroom.
Leo Frank had made what amounted to a murder trial confession at his own trial, it was the first time ever in Southern history, but Frank continued to claim he was innocent despite his dumbfounding revelation.
Be sure to read the abridged final closing statements of State's prosecution team leader, the Solicitor General Hugh Manson Dorsey and his Associate Frank Arthur Hooper in American State Trials Volume X (10) 1918 by John Davison Lawson LLD, for their unique take on the Leo Frank trial testimony and evidence. One should also read the really long winded unabridged closing arguments of Hugh Manson Dorsey published in 1914 as 'The Argument of Hugh M. Dorsey' (available on archive.org).
Firebrand Tom E. Watson
Many would argue the best post trial analysis of the Leo Frank murder confession is articulated by the criminal defense lawyer, populist and genius Tom Edward Watson, in his Watson's Magazine, January, March, August, September and October of 1915, and his weekly Jeffersonian Newspaper in specific issues during the years of 1914, 1915, 1916, and 1917. Though his best works on the Leo Frank Trial are found in Watson's Magazine August, September, October of 1915.
Appeals 1913 to 1915
Numerous half-baked frivolous appeals petitions were made by the Leo Frank Legal Defense Team to the Georgia Superior Court, Georgia Supreme Court, US Federal District Court, and United States Supreme Court, all appeals were denied after careful review, with lengthy decisions written and rendered (see: Leo Frank Appeals 1913, 1914, 1915). In April of 1915, Leo Frank had exhausted all of his court appeals, so he went back to his lawyer Luther Rosser, asking him to request a commutation from his law partner Governor Slaton.
Commutation June 21, 1915
The departing Governor of Georgia, John M. Slaton, decided to commute the death sentence of his own client Leo Frank at the 11th hour, to life in prison on June 21, 1915, just days before the end of his last term as Governor. It was an act of political suicide, but it didn't matter, as Slaton was leaving office anyway on June 26, 1915, and he was likely rewarded handsomely behind the scenes in other ways. Slaton left Georgia and went on a tour of the United States with a briefcase full of greenbacks.
The 12 hundred strong mob formed to angrily protest the commutation, because it was a gross conflict of interest, not because of anti-Semitism. Rarely ever mentioned by Leo Frank partisans is the connection between Leo Frank's commutation and the fact Governor John M. Slaton was part owner of the lawfirm that represented Leo Frank at his trial and during his appeals. The lawfirm was called Rosser, Brandon, 'Slaton' and Phillips (the 'Slaton' was Governor John M. Slaton).
Leo Frank Prison Shanking, July 17, 1915
One month after the commutation of Leo Frank got shanked in prison by a fellow inmate named William Creen, who used a 7 inch butcher knife to slash the left side of Leo Frank's throat. To add anti-Semitic psychological warfare to the incident, rumors began circulating the knife had been used for slaughtering hogs. Leo Frank barely survived the attack, thanks to inmate doctors who came to his aid in the nick of time and stitched him up. The tender wound was slow to heal in the hot & humid summer of 1915.
One month after the shanking and almost 2 months after Leo Frank received his controversial clemency, a well organized group of about 25 to 35 men, many of whom were from Georgia's highest strata of politics, law and society, organized themselves into the 'Knights of Mary Phagan'. This newly formed group of Georgia's elites, sought to fulfill the conviction of the Jury and death sentence judgment ratified by Judge Leonard Strickland Roan. From their point of view, this band of men sought to deliver righteous retribution in the form of "Southern Style Vigilante Justice", which is called by the mainstream: Lynching.
After more than 2 months of careful planning, Leo Frank was kidnapped from the minimum security Milledgeville prison on the evening of Monday, August 16, 1915, at 10 p.m., then driven all through the night for 8 hours and lynched in the early hours of August 17, 1915, from an oak tree's sturdy branch in Marietta a few miles away from where Mary Phagan had formerly lived at one time.
Post Lynching, August 17, 1915
Once word got out about the lynching, Leo Frank's dangling body became a public spectacle, photographs were taken and the pictures of Leo Franks lifeless suspended body, gently twirling in the breeze, became popular post cards and allegedly people snatched pieces of his shirt, transforming them into memorabilia. Leo Frank was cut down and one hot-headed yahoo started stomping on his face and chest and other people had to pull him away, calm the savage down and vote him out.
How the Most Definitive Book on the Leo Frank Case was Born
The book 'The Murder of Little Mary Phagan' is written by the namesake of the murder victim, Mary Phagan's great niece named Mary Phagan Kean. When Phagan Kean was 13 years old, she discovered her given name was no mere accident or coincidence. When people heard her name, they started asking her questions about whether she was related to the famous little Mary Phagan who had been murdered long ago by Leo Frank on Confederate Memorial Day, Saturday, April 26, 1913.
Phagan-Kean would learn a startling secret when people started asking her questions about her curious name, so she asked her family if she was somehow connected to the Mary Phagan who was murdered so long ago in the National Pencil Factory. When her family revealed the truth about her blood relation, she immediately became insatiably interested in learning about the investigation, and its aftermath.
Instantly becoming a life long student of the case at age 13, Phagan-Kean has since devoted every free moment of her life studying volumes of legal documents, and reading every surviving newspaper account surrounding the rape and strangulation of her great aunt, 13 year old Mary Anne Phagan (1899 to 1913) and the biography of Leo Max Frank (1884 to 1915).
Leo Frank was the President of the 500 member Atlanta Chapter of B'nai B'rith beginning in 1912, and even after his conviction, he was unanimously re-elected again in September 1913, until his term expired in September 1914. As a result of his conviction, the case turned into a national scandal and eventually evolved into a sensational cause celebre. For the Jewish Community, Leo Frank's conviction, would become the critical mass of "anti-Semitism" catalyzing the formation of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, born in October, 1913, or ADL (www.ADL.org
) for short. The lynching of Leo Frank sparked the revival of the defunct and nativist ethnic nationalist Ku Klux Klan (KKK) on November 24, 1915.
The KKK considers themselves the "immune system of the United States of America", providing an immunal White blood cell response to what they perceived as an infection of the United States of America, as a host-body, by a collectively organized Jewish virus/parasite community. The ADL considers itself on the other hand, the foremost civil rights group in America and the world, defending Jews and Israel against Anti-Semitism.
Jewish Scholars overwhelmingly produced the lion share of all the written "persecution and victim-centric" books, articles, web sites, scripts, video, media, songs, broadway plays and texts about the subject of Leo Frank and Mary Phagan, and almost unanimously allege the investigation, trial, and conviction of Frank where part of a widespread Antisemitic Gentile Sponsored Conspiracy, a text book case of Anti-Semitism; the railroading, and framing of an innocent Northern Jewish Man because of Gentile anti-Jewish racism, prejudice and religious hatred. Leo Frank partisan books often leave out volumes of the relevant facts, evidence and testimony concerning the Leo Frank case, dishonestly spinning the facts convenient to creating doubt about Leo Franks guilty verdict.
If you have any doubts about Leo Frank's guilt study the brief of evidence and sift it!
1982 and 1983: The Alonzo Mann Media Circus
In 1982, Alonzo Mann, a lonely, broke and senile octogenarian, who also happened to be the former office boy of Leo Frank for three weeks in April, 1913, came forward at the behest of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, with a fantastic tall tale about what he saw on April 26, 1913 at noon.
1982 was about 69 years after the murder of Mary Phagan and trial of Leo M. Frank for her murder. Alonzo "Lonnie" Mann went public with his story claiming he had withheld information from the Leo M. Frank legal defense team, police, Solicitor General Hugh M. Dorsey, the Judge Leonard Strickland Roan, the Jury of 12 White men, Appeals Courts, Slaton's Commutation hearing and seven decades of people.
Alonzo Mann said that, he went back to the National Pencil Company Factory five minutes after he left it at noon on April 26, 1913, and saw the Negro Janitor Jim Conley, carrying the body of Mary Phagan on his shoulder, and Jim Conley reached out his hand for Alonzo Mann and said to the young boy, "if you tell anyone , I will kill you". Alonzo Mann, claimed he ran home and told his family and his mother told him not to tell anyone.
These statements given by Alonzo Mann in the 1980's made no sense and came off as a desperate web of lies according to many people who heard his newfangled claims.
, why would White parents in a White racial separatist Georgia of 1913, tell their White son not to tell the police about a "murdering", and thus ostensibly guilty black janitor Jim Conley, with the result being an "innocent" clean cut White boss, Leo Frank, who gave their son a highly prized job, wrongfully going to gallows? Instead of a guilty Negro?
, why would White parents allow their son to report to work on Monday Morning, April 28, 1913, right after their son was threatened with death on Saturday April 26, 1913? Alonzo Mann Reported for work Monday morning, April 28, 1913 when all the forensic revelations were made at the National Pencil Company and he too witnessed them.
, if Alonzo Mann admitted in 1982 he lied under oath at the Leo Frank trial in 1913 (about leaving at 11:30 am instead of noon), what's not to say he wasn't lying again in 1982 / 1983, when he said he came back at 12:05pm after leaving at noon? 70 years after the trial, he was asked why he came back, and he said it was about a baseball bet he made with Schiff, but everyone knew Herbert Schiff was not meant to come to work that day - including Herbert Schiff who hinted as such at the trial.
Alonzo Mann said he came back to the factory at 12:05pm, this was about the time Monteen Stover said she came to the factory, how come Monteen Stover didn't walkin on this horrifying scene either?
The ADL tried to use the Alonzo Mann Affair to get a posthumous pardon at first in 1982-1983, but it failed. Three long years of political machinations, back room wheeling and dealing continued until a second attempt was made.
1986: ADL Second Attempt Successful
In 1986, pressure from the powerful Jewish community, Jewish groups and ADL (Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith), resulted in the highly political March 11, 1986 posthumous pardon of Leo Frank without exoneration
There was only one problem with the highly political pardon of Leo Frank, because Alonzo Mann had died March 19, 1985 and no one could question him about the incident. The politically corrupt board forgave Leo Frank with a pardon, but kept Leo Frank's GUILT intact and thus did not disturb the verdict of the Leo Frank Trial Judge and Jury.
On March 11, 1986, a pardon without exoneration of guilt
was issued by the board:
Without attempting to address the question of guilt or innocence, and in recognition of the State's failure to protect the person of Leo M. Frank and thereby preserve his opportunity for continued legal appeal of his conviction, and in recognition of the State's failure to bring his killers to justice, and as an effort to heal old wounds, the State Board of Pardons and Paroles, in compliance with its Constitutional and statutory authority, hereby grants to Leo M. Frank a Pardon.
A most grotesque symbol of ADL political power just unraveled.
Even with the posthumous pardon, it was specified the guilt of Leo M. Frank remains permanently intact, because his official conviction was not changed, disturbed or tampered with from 1913 to 1986.
As of March 11, 1986, Leo M. Frank remains guilty in the eyes of Black Letter and Settled Law forever more, though he was forgiven of his crime by the board, he was not forgiven by the public that detests rapist-pedohiles and child killers.
A number of fictionalized media dramatizations and treatments have been made about the case in the form of miniseries, Broadway plays, Hollywood dramas, political docudramas, video blogs, and songs, conducted across the international media landscape, all mostly created by Jews making a mockery of the life of a little Christian girl, Mary Phagan, who is used as nothing more than a plot device to launch Leo Frank's persecution hoax at the hands of evil Gentiles.
Attempts for more than 100 years are continually being launched to idealize and rehabilitate the image of Leo Frank as an innocent and stoic Jewish victim of anti-Semitism.
The efforts to transfigure Leo Frank from a perverted pedophile rapist and strangler into a holy Jewish religious martyr of collective Gentile prejudice has continued unchallenged.
The blood libel against the Leo Frank prosecution team, European-Americans and people who think Leo Frank is guilty, continues to this day by the organized Jewish community. The Leo Frank Case is a Jewish-Gentile conflict that has been smoldering for 100 years and continues to inflame both sides.
Three Leo M. Frank incriminating statements considered admissions equivalent to murder confessions From the 1913 Brief of Evidence
1. Jim Conley, Saturday, April 26, 1913, circa noon to 1:00 PM (See Jim Conley affidavits and trial testimony in the brief of evidence (1913) and Georgia supreme court case file about Leo Frank (1913, 1914).
2. Lucille Selig Frank, Saturday Late Evening, April 26, 1913, 10:30 PM (See State's Exhibit J, Brief of Evidence, 1913)
3. The Public, Monday, August 18, 1913, (Leo Frank's four hour unsworn trial statement, August 18, Brief of Evidence, 1913). Leo Frank's explanation on the witness stand to the trial jury, why Monteen Stover had found his office was empty between 12:05pm and 12:10pm on April 26, 1913, with an unconscious bathroom visit: (Leo Frank Trial Brief of Evidence, 1913, p. 186).
The Fourth Leo Frank Admission that Amounted to an authorized Jailhouse Murder Confession Published in the Atlanta Constitution
4. Leo Frank confirmed his August 18, 1913, murder trial bathroom admission-confession in the March 9, 1914, issue of the Atlanta Constitution
Leo Frank's defenders won't ever dare to mention the "unconscious" bathroom murder trial confession that Leo Frank made on the witness stand when he was giving his four hour unsworn statement at the trial on Monday afternoon, August 18, 1913, between 2:15pm and 6:00pm. Thoughtful and analytical interpretations of the statement Leo Frank made to counter Monteen Stover's testimony are always left out of most Leo Frank revisionist books, even though it proves Leo Frank's guilt indisputably when juxtaposed with State's Exhibit B and Jim Conley testimony about finding Mary Phagan dead in the metalroom bathroom (see: State's Exhibit A, item #9), at the behest of Leo Frank (see: Leo Frank's trial statement, Monteen Stover's trial testimony, State's Exhibit B, Jim Conley's trial testimony and affidavits, brief of evidence, 1913).
Leo Frank is the only person in early 20th century US history to make what amounted to a murder confession at his own trial, leaving most people shocked.
See: The final closing arguments of Hugh M. Dorsey, Frank Arthur Hooper (American State Trials, Volume X, 1918, John D. Lawson) and Tom Watson's analysis of Leo Frank's trial admission amounting to a murder confession (Watson Magazine, September, 1915).
Be sure to study, the Leo Frank Trial Brief of Evidence, 1913, and the 1,800 page Leo M. Frank Georgia Supreme Court Case File (1913, 1914).
This Review Published on April 26, 2013
More excellent sources on the Frank-Phagan Case include:
0. The Leo Frank Case (Mary Phagan) Inside Story of Georgia's Greatest Murder Mystery 1913
- The first neutral book written on the subject. Very interesting read.
1. The Murder of Little Mary Phagan by Mary Phagan Kean
(Available here on www.Archive.org). Written by Mary Phagan Kean, the great grand niece of Mary Phagan. A neutral account of the events surrounding the trial of Leo Frank. The Murder of Little Mary Phagan is well worth reading and it is a refreshing change from the endless number of Jewish and contemporary books turning the Leo Frank case into a neurotic race obsessed tabloid controversy.
2. American State Trials, volume X (1918) by John Lawson
Tends to be biased in favor of Leo Frank and his legal defense team, this document provides an abridged version of the Brief of Evidence, leaving out some important things said and details when it republishes parts of the trial testimony. Be sure to read the closing arguments of Luther Zeigler Rosser, Reuben Rose Arnold, Frank Arthur Hooper and Hugh Manson Dorsey. For a more complete version of the Leo M. Frank trial testimony, read the 1913 Leo Frank Trial Brief of Evidence.
3. Argument of Hugh M. Dorsey in the Trial of Leo Frank
Some but not all of the 9 hours of arguments given to the Jury at the end of the Leo Frank trial. Only 18 Libraries in the world have copies of this books. This is an excellent book and required reading to see how Dorsey in sales vernacular 'closed' the panel of 13 men, the trial jury of 12 men plus Judge Leonard Strickland Roan.
4. Leo M. Frank, Plaintiff in Error, vs. State of Georgia, Defendant in Error. In Error from Fulton Superior Court at the July Term 1913, Brief of Evidence.
Extremely rare, only 1 copy exists, and it is at the Georgia State Archive.
Three Major Atlanta Dailies: The Atlanta Constitution, The Atlanta Journal, The Atlanta Georgian (Hearst's Tabloid Yellow Journalism), The most relevant issues center around April 28th to August 27th 1913.
5. Atlanta Constitution Newspaper: The Murder of Mary Phagan, Coroner's Inquest, Grand Jury, Investigation, Trail, Appeals, Shanking and Lynching of Leo Frank Case in the Atlanta Constitution Newspaper from 1913 to 1915. http://archive.org/details/LeoFrankCaseInTheAtlantaConstitutionNewspaper1913To1915
6. Atlanta Georgian newspaper covering the Leo Frank Case from April though August, 1913. http://archive.org/details/AtlantaGeorgianNewspaperAprilToAugust1913
7. Atlanta Journal Newspaper, April, 28, 1913, through till the end of August, 1913, pertaining to the Leo Frank Case: http://archive.org/details/AtlantaJournalApril281913toAugust311913
Leo Frank confirms he might have been in the bathroom at the time Monteen Stover said his office was empty: See the Atlanta Constitution, Monday, March 9, 1914, Leo Frank Jailhouse Interview
8. Tom Watson's Jeffersonian Newspaper (1914, 1915, 1916 and 1917) and Watson's Magazine(1915). Tom Watson's best work on the Leo M. Frank case was published in August and September 1915. Watson's five major magazine works written collectively on the Leo M. Frank topic, provide logical arguments confirming the guilt of Leo M. Frank with the superb reasoning of a genius criminal attorney.
These five 1915 works are absolutely required reading for anyone interested in the Leo M. Frank Case. Tom Watson's magazine publications surged from 30,000 to 100,000 copies, when it became known he would be writing on the Leo Frank case. Originals of these magazines are extremely rare and very difficult to find.
8.1. The Leo Frank Case By Tom Watson (January 1915) Watson's Magazine Volume 20 No. 3. See page 139 for the Leo Frank Case
. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source Archive.org
8.2. The Full Review of the Leo Frank Case By Tom Watson (March 1915) Volume 20. No. 5. See page 235 for 'A Full Review of the Leo Frank Case'. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga.
, Digital Source Archive.org
8.3. The Celebrated Case of The State of Georgia vs. Leo Frank By Tom Watson (August 1915) Volumne 21, No 4. See page 182 for 'The Celebrated Case of the State of Georgia vs. Leo Frank". Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga.
, Digital Source Archive.org
8.4. The Official Record in the Case of Leo Frank, Jew Pervert By Tom Watson (September 1915) Volume 21. No. 5. See page 251 for 'The Official Record in the Case of Leo Frank, Jew Pervert'. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga.
, Digital Source Archive.org
8.5. The Rich Jews Indict a State! The Whole South Traduced in the Matter of Leo Frank By Tom Watson (October 1915) Volume 21. No. 6. See page 301. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga.
, Digital Source: Archive.org
Tom Watson's Jeffersonian Weekly Newspaper
9. The archive of Tom E. Watson Digital Papers, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, contains the full collection of Jeffersonian Newspapers: http://www.lib.unc.edu/dc/watson
Leo Frank cult members (known as Frankites) are posing as neutral reviewers and attempting to convince people not to read Tom Watson's analysis about the Frank-Phagan affair. Watson's analysis of the case is the controversial forbidden fruit of truth that have been censored for more than 100 years. For a nearly complete selection of: Tom Watson's Jeffersonian newspaper articles related to the Murder of Mary Phagan and Leo Frank Case
Tom Watson Brown, Grandson of Thomas Edward Watson
10. Notes on the Case of Leo M. Frank
, By Tom W. Brown, Emery University, Atlanta, Georgia, 1982.
Leo Frank Georgia Supreme Court Archive:
11. Leo Frank Trial and Appeals Georgia Supreme Court File
(1,800 pages). http://archive.org/details/leo-frank-georgia-supreme-court-case-records-1913-1914